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Understanding the computational principles used by the brain and how they are physically embodied is crucial for developing novel computing paradigms and guiding a new generation of technologies that can combine the strengths of industrial-scale electronics with the computational performance of brains.
Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistors are commonly used in very-large-scale-integration (VLSI) digital circuits as a basic binary switch that turns on or off as the transistor gate voltage crosses some threshold. Carver Mead first noted that CMOS transistor circuits operating below this threshold in current mode have strikingly similar sigmoidal current–voltage relationships as do neuronal ion channels and consume little power; hence they are ideal analogs of...
A simple learning rule that implements a spatial map can be used for online correction of position estimates in a neuromorphic head direction cell system.
This brief essay, originated by the work on the Neuromorphics Lab in the DARPA SyNAPSE project, describes our early effort in the study of alternative computing schemes that will make use of massive memristive-based devices coupled with low-power CMOS processes to efficiently compute neural activation and learning in novel computing devices. The answer was to couple fuzzy inference with dense memristive memory. This combination can provide extensive power and silicon real estate savings while maintaining a high degree of accuracy in the resulting precision of the computations.
More than anything, the neocortex makes us human, so it has been said. Humans are better than any other living things at reading blog posts, scheduling daily activities, and filling out tax forms, among other things mundane and not. Much progress has been made localizing certain functions to certain areas of the brain, in the neocortex in particular. Other questions remain unanswered. These include how function arises from form: how do the individual neurons cooperate together to process and combine information? What is the role of each of the six neocortical layers in information processing? What impact does network connectivity have on the shape of dynamics? How do neuronal oscillations and rhythms help process information? How are different aspects of cognition coordinated? These questions are often difficult or impossible to answer from in-vivo measurements, not only because it is currently impossible to measure the state of all neurons in the brain, but also because knowledge of the state of each neuron would create an insurmountably large dataset that would be difficult to interpret.
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